Elli Louka, in this timely written important book, skillfully presents, in a “realistic” language, a thorough and insightful examination of the nuclear non-proliferation order and the particularities of its governance in its various contexts. It is often argued that the nuclear non-proliferation order divides the world into nuclear-weapon-haves and have-nots creating a nuclear apartheid. Employing a careful and nuanced discussion of this claim, Elli Louka examines the complex, multi-level architecture of the nuclear non-proliferation order, the fairness and effectiveness of international and regional institutions and scenarios for the future of nuclear weapons, while throwing light on the connection between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. thus offering a comprehensive and analysis of the dynamically evolving nuclear non-proliferation order interrelationship between. A sophisticated, theoretically-informed study of a complex issue, this book is a must-read for policymakers, researchers and those who wish to understand the intricacies and challenges of developing institutions to address the nuclear weapons threat.